B12 Deficiency
May be caused by inadequate intake (especially vegetarian and vegan diets), malabsorption, pernicious anemia, excessive alcohol intake, and autoimmune diseases.
Iron Overload
Most commonly due to genetic mutations that cause an increase in iron accumulation. Iron overload is a source of oxidative stress.
Elevated Apolipoprotein B
Correlates with LDL particle number and thus cardiovascular disease risk.
Elevated Methyl Mercury
Contaminated fish consumption.
Elevated Benzophenone-3
Used as sunscreen agents for skin protection, and as UV filters in cosmetic products and plastics to improve stability.
Reticulocyte Dysregulation
Suggest testing reticulocytes directly as our algorithms are unable to differentiate between the low and high reticulocyte patterns. A high reticulocyte count may be due to haemolytic or blood loss anaemia. If reticulocytes are elevated, suspect a falsely elevated MCV. Low reticulocytes indicate anaemia of chronic disease (i.e. due to inflammation) or iron deficiency.
Manganese Deficiency
An essential trace element required for the activity of several enzymes including the mitochondrial antioxidant defense superoxide dismutase family. Manganese is involved in carbohydrate metabolism; either deficiency or excess results in abnormal carbohydrate metabolism.
Elevated Lead
Used in leaded gasoline, industrial processes such as lead smelting and coal combustion, lead-based paints, lead containing pipes or lead-based solder in water supply systems, battery recycling, grids and bearings, etc.
Copper Deficiency
Most commonly due to malabsorption, malnutrition, or excessive zinc intake/supplementation.
Elevated LDL-P
Oxidized LDL particles are implicated in cardiovascular disease. Both the number and size of LDL particles should be considered when evaluating CVD risk. May be elevated due to insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, intestinal permeability, gut infections, or genetics.
Elevated Ethyl Paraben
Used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, and can also be used in pharmaceuticals, as well as in food and beverage processing.
Positive Toxocara
The roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease in humans. Children are at particular risk of toxocariasis when they play in areas potentially contaminated with Toxocara eggs, such as playgrounds or sandboxes and ingest embryonated roundworm eggs.
Elevated Fluoride
Community water fluoridation and toothpaste.
Elevated Inorganic Mercury
Exposure to inorganic mercury may be via dental amalgams, skin lightening products, and cosmetics.
Elevated Homocysteine
Elevated homocysteine can arise from nutritional deficiencies of folate, vitamin B6, and vitamin B12. Certain diseases of the kidney, thyroid dysfunction, cancer, psoriasis, and diabetes as well as various drugs, alcohol, tobacco, coffee, older age and menopause can also cause elevated homocysteine. Elevated homocysteine levels may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and alterations in neurological function (cognitive impairment, dementia, depression, Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease).
Elevated Triclosan
Bactericide used in soap and found in other personal care products.
Elevated Propyl Paraben
Used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, and can also be used in pharmaceuticals, as well as in food and beverage processing.
Elevated Histamine
Indicative of an inflammatory response, anaphylaxis, and general mast cell activation.
Low Iodine
Often due to poor iodine intake and associated with thyroid hormone imbalances and goiter.
Elevated Methyl Paraben
Used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, and can also be used in pharmaceuticals, as well as in food and beverage processing.
Positive Hepatitis B
Hepatitis B virus infects more than 300 million people worldwide and is a common cause of liver disease and liver cancer. Most adults infected with the virus recover, but 5%-10% are unable to clear the virus and become chronically infected.
Elevated Nitrate
Nitrate can disrupt thyroid function and intake is from both food and drinking water, with foods (e.g. vegetables, milk, dairy products) thought to account for the majority of nitrate intake.
Folate Deficiency
May be caused by inadequate intake of dietary folate, malabsorption, excessive alcohol consumption, and genetics.
Elevated Arsenic
Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes.
Elevated Hexane
Used in paints, adhesives, cleaning solutions, and aerosolized insecticide sprays.
Vitamin D Deficiency
Most commonly due to inadequate sun exposure, but may also be a result of genetics, kidney disease, and possibly obesity.
Elevated Toxoplasmosis Antibodies
Occur with Toxoplasmosis infection, a common intracellular protozoan parasite that may occur due to exposure of infected cat feces, contaminated food and water; especially important for pregnant women, as it can be passed from mother to child.
Elevated Bisphenol F
Bisphenol A replacement.
Elevated Cyclohexane
Used in paints, adhesives, cleaning solutions, and aerosolized insecticide sprays.
Elevated Thyroid Antibodies
Thyroglobulin antibodies above the normal range (>10 IU/ml). Having increased anti-thyroglobulin antibodies is a risk factor for hypothyroidism.
Elevated H. Pylori IgG Antibodies
Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.
Elevated Thiocyanate
Thiocyanate is a polyatomic anion that can disrupt thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake, similar to the action of perchlorate
Elevated Phthalates
Used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break. Often called plasticizers, some phthalates are used as solvents (dissolving agents) for other materials. They are used in many products, such as vinyl flooring, adhesives, detergents, lubricating oils, automotive plastics, plastic clothes (raincoats), and personal-care products (soaps, shampoos, hair sprays, and nail polishes). Phthalates are used widely in polyvinyl chloride plastics, which are used to make products such as plastic packaging film and sheets, garden hoses, inflatable toys, blood-storage containers, and medical tubing.
Elevated Bisphenol S
Bisphenol A replacement.
Elevated 1-Hydroxynapthalene
Exposure to vehicle exhausts, asphalt, coal tar, wildfires, agricultural burning, charbroiled foods, and tobacco smoke.
Elevated Benzene
Exposure to tobacco smoke.
Selenium Deficiency
Selenium protects against oxidative stress and engages in redox signaling, as it is a component of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase. It is also found in deiodinase enzymes that metabolize the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) into the more active form, triiodothyronine (T3). Selenium status in the body is largely determined by dietary intake as well as geographic area and soil composition. Deficiency is associated with thyroid autoimmunity and is usually due to inadequate dietary intake and/or low selenium status in soil.
Elevated Cadmium
Used in television screens, lasers, batteries, paint pigments, cosmetics, and in galvanizing steel, as a barrier in nuclear fission, and was used with zinc to weld seals in lead water pipes prior to the 1960s.
Elevated Butyl Paraben
Used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, and can also be used in pharmaceuticals, as well as in food and beverage processing.
Short Telomere Length
Telomeres protect the integrity of DNA by serving as caps on the ends of chromosomes. Telomere length decreases with ageing, which contributes to cell senescence, and is associated with an increased risk of cancer, metabolic disease, and depression.
Elevated Barium
Barium is an alkaline earth metal, principally found as barium sulfate carbonate ores. Barium and barium compounds have a variety of uses including in electronics, rodenticide, a colourant in paints and cosmetics, and an x-ray contrast medium. The predominant effect is hypokalemia, which can result in ventricular tachycardia, hypertension and hypotension, muscle weakness, and paralysis.
Elevated 3-Hydroxyfluorene
Exposure to vehicle exhausts, asphalt, coal tar, wildfires, agricultural burning, charbroiled foods, and tobacco smoke.
Elevated 2,4-dichlorophenol
Used in the wood preservation industry as intermediates in the production of pesticides, and as disinfectants or fungicides for industrial and indoor home use.
Elevated CRP
A nonspecific marker of inflammation. Associated with cardiovascular disease but may also be elevated due infection or trauma.
Elevated Perchlorate
Used as an oxidant in solid fuel propellants for rockets and missiles since the 1950s. Lesser amounts of perchlorate are used in matches and fireworks.
Elevated 2,5-dichlorophenol
Used in the wood preservation industry as intermediates in the production of pesticides, and as disinfectants or fungicides for industrial and indoor home use.
Elevated Serum Bile Acids
May indicate early liver dysfunction due to xenobiotics and organic solvents environmental exposure.
Elevated o-Xylene
Exposure to tobacco smoke.
Elevated MTBE
Used as an additive to replace lead in gasoline, but its use was banned after widespread groundwater contamination was discovered.
Positive Chlamydia
Sexually transmitted infections caused by Chlamydia trachomatis may lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and chronic pelvic pain in women.
Low Free T3
May be due to inflammation, low energy availability, thyroid autoimmunity, nutrient deficiencies such as selenium and iodine, elevated cortisol.
Low pH
Suggests metabolic acidosis, often caused by an elevation of ketones or lactic acid; may be due to diabetic ketoacidosis, kidney dysfunction, nutrient deficiencies, lung dysfunction, diarrhea, or anemia.
Elevated Cotinine
Exposure to nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke.
Elevated Salmonella IgG Antibodies
Salmonella is the leading foodborne pathogen in the US. Consumption of contaminated chicken, turkey, or eggs is usually the primary source. IgG antibody titers remain elevated for more than 50 days after infection.
Fatty Liver
Fatty liver is the most frequent liver disease in Western countries. Obesity and its complications, especially type 2 diabetes and hypertriglyceridemia, are likely to be the main responsible of the current epidemic of fatty liver, while ethanol intake may play a minor role.
Elevated Tissue Transglutaminase IgA Antibodies
Major autoantigen in coeliac disease.
Vitamin C Deficiency
Vitamin C is essential for the development and maintenance of connective tissues and plays a vital role in bone formation, wound healing, healthy gums, and neurotransmitter, hormone, and amino acid formation. Vitamin C also plays a critical role in many metabolic functions including the activation of folate and the conversion of cholesterol to bile acids. It functions as a water-soluble antioxidant that protects the body from free radical damage. Deficiency is usually due to inadequate dietary intake (fruits and vegetables). The need for vitamin C may also increase with lifestyle factors (such as smoking) and other diseases and health conditions.
Low Serum Beta-Carotene
Beta-Carotene is a naturally-occurring retinol (vitamin A) precursor that contributes to the red/orange color of fruits and vegetables. While beneficial as an antioxidant, beta-carotene is a non-essential nutrient given adequate vitamin A status. Low serum beta-carotene is typically due to inadequate intake of vegetables and fruits. Excessive dietary intake may cause harmless hyperpigmentation of the skin (carotenodermia). High-dose supplementation is contraindicated in smokers.
Elevated Triclocarban
Used as an antimicrobial agent in consumer and personal care products (e.g., bar soap), as well as in cleansing preparations in hospitals and other medical settings.
Positive Hepatitis D
Hepatitis viruses constitute a major public health problem because of the morbidity and mortality associated with the acute and chronic consequences of these infections. Co-infection with hepatitis D virus (HDV) in persons with acute or chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection can lead to fulminant hepatitis.