Iron Overload
Most commonly due to genetic mutations that cause an increase in iron accumulation. Iron overload is a source of oxidative stress.
Elevated Propyl Paraben
Used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, and can also be used in pharmaceuticals, as well as in food and beverage processing.
Elevated Apolipoprotein B
Correlates with LDL particle number and thus cardiovascular disease risk.
Elevated Methyl Mercury
Contaminated fish consumption.
Reticulocyte Dysregulation
Suggest testing reticulocytes directly as our algorithms are unable to differentiate between the low and high reticulocyte patterns. A high reticulocyte count may be due to haemolytic or blood loss anaemia. If reticulocytes are elevated, suspect a falsely elevated MCV. Low reticulocytes indicate anaemia of chronic disease (i.e. due to inflammation) or iron deficiency.
Elevated Inorganic Mercury
Exposure to inorganic mercury may be via dental amalgams, skin lightening products, and cosmetics.
Elevated Lead
Used in leaded gasoline, industrial processes such as lead smelting and coal combustion, lead-based paints, lead containing pipes or lead-based solder in water supply systems, battery recycling, grids and bearings, etc.
Elevated Nitrate
Nitrate can disrupt thyroid function and intake is from both food and drinking water, with foods (e.g. vegetables, milk, dairy products) thought to account for the majority of nitrate intake.
Elevated Histamine
Indicative of an inflammatory response, anaphylaxis, and general mast cell activation.
Elevated LDL-P
Oxidized LDL particles are implicated in cardiovascular disease. Both the number and size of LDL particles should be considered when evaluating CVD risk. May be elevated due to insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, intestinal permeability, gut infections, or genetics.
Elevated Arsenic
Contamination is caused by arsenic from natural geological sources leaching into aquifers, contaminating drinking water and may also occur from mining and other industrial processes.
Elevated Fluoride
Community water fluoridation and toothpaste.
Positive Toxocara
The roundworms Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati cause a broad spectrum of clinical disease in humans. Children are at particular risk of toxocariasis when they play in areas potentially contaminated with Toxocara eggs, such as playgrounds or sandboxes and ingest embryonated roundworm eggs.
Elevated Bisphenol A
Used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, which can be used in protective coatings on food containers and as composites and sealants in dentistry.
Elevated Toxoplasmosis IgG Antibodies
Occur with Toxoplasmosis infection, a common parasite that may occur due to exposure of infected cat feces, contaminated food and water; especially important for pregnant women, as it can be passed from mother to child.
Elevated Hexane
Used in paints, adhesives, cleaning solutions, and aerosolized insecticide sprays.
Low Testosterone
May be due to inflammation, stress (i.e. elevated cortisol), trauma, low energy availability, menopause and aging, sleep deprivation.
Elevated Ethyl Paraben
Used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, and can also be used in pharmaceuticals, as well as in food and beverage processing.
Elevated o-Xylene
Exposure to tobacco smoke.
Elevated Butyl Paraben
Used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, and can also be used in pharmaceuticals, as well as in food and beverage processing.
Copper Deficiency
Most commonly due to malabsorption, malnutrition, or excessive zinc intake/supplementation.
Elevated Cotinine
Exposure to nicotine in environmental tobacco smoke.
Low pH
Suggests metabolic acidosis, often caused by an elevation of ketones or lactic acid; may be due to diabetic ketoacidosis, kidney dysfunction, nutrient deficiencies, lung dysfunction, diarrhea, or anemia.
Elevated Cadmium
Used in television screens, lasers, batteries, paint pigments, cosmetics, and in galvanizing steel, as a barrier in nuclear fission, and was used with zinc to weld seals in lead water pipes prior to the 1960s.
Elevated H. Pylori IgG Antibodies
Helicobacter pylori is the first formally recognized bacterial carcinogen and is one of the most successful human pathogens, as over half of the world's population is colonized with this gram-negative bacterium. Unless treated, colonization usually persists lifelong. H. pylori infection represents a key factor in the etiology of various gastrointestinal diseases, ranging from chronic active gastritis without clinical symptoms to peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.
Elevated Bisphenol S
Bisphenol A replacement.
B12 Deficiency
May be caused by inadequate intake (especially vegetarian and vegan diets), malabsorption, pernicious anemia, excessive alcohol intake, and autoimmune diseases.
Folate Deficiency
May be caused by inadequate intake of dietary folate, malabsorption, excessive alcohol consumption, and genetics.
Elevated 2,5-dichlorophenol
Used in the wood preservation industry as intermediates in the production of pesticides, and as disinfectants or fungicides for industrial and indoor home use.
Elevated Triclocarban
Used as an antimicrobial agent in consumer and personal care products (e.g., bar soap), as well as in cleansing preparations in hospitals and other medical settings.
Elevated Methyl Paraben
Used as antimicrobial preservatives in personal care products, and can also be used in pharmaceuticals, as well as in food and beverage processing.
Elevated Benzophenone-3
Used as sunscreen agents for skin protection, and as UV filters in cosmetic products and plastics to improve stability.
Elevated 3-Hydroxyfluorene
Exposure to vehicle exhausts, asphalt, coal tar, wildfires, agricultural burning, charbroiled foods, and tobacco smoke.
Elevated Perchlorate
Used as an oxidant in solid fuel propellants for rockets and missiles since the 1950s. Lesser amounts of perchlorate are used in matches and fireworks.
Elevated DEET
The principal ingredient in many personal insect repellents worldwide and is highly effective against a broad spectrum of insect pests, including potential disease vectors such as mosquitoes, biting flies and ticks (including many ticks that may carry Lyme disease).
Elevated 2,4-dichlorophenol
Used in the wood preservation industry as intermediates in the production of pesticides, and as disinfectants or fungicides for industrial and indoor home use.
Elevated 1-Hydroxynapthalene
Exposure to vehicle exhausts, asphalt, coal tar, wildfires, agricultural burning, charbroiled foods, and tobacco smoke.
Elevated Phthalates
Used to make plastics more flexible and harder to break. Often called plasticizers, some phthalates are used as solvents (dissolving agents) for other materials. They are used in many products, such as vinyl flooring, adhesives, detergents, lubricating oils, automotive plastics, plastic clothes (raincoats), and personal-care products (soaps, shampoos, hair sprays, and nail polishes). Phthalates are used widely in polyvinyl chloride plastics, which are used to make products such as plastic packaging film and sheets, garden hoses, inflatable toys, blood-storage containers, and medical tubing.
Low Iodine
Often due to poor iodine intake and associated with thyroid hormone imbalances and goiter.
Elevated Triclosan
Bactericide used in soap and found in other personal care products.
Elevated CRP
A nonspecific marker of inflammation. Associated with cardiovascular disease but may also be elevated due infection or trauma.
Elevated Cyclohexane
Used in paints, adhesives, cleaning solutions, and aerosolized insecticide sprays.
Elevated Perfluorodecanoic
Used in surfactants, lubricants, paints, polishes, food packaging and fire-retarding foams. Many industrial and consumer products, including soil, stain, grease, and water resistant coatings on textiles and carpet; uses in the automotive, mechanical, aerospace, chemical, electrical, medical, and building/construction industries; personal care products; and non-stick coatings on cookware.
Elevated Benzene
Exposure to tobacco smoke.